The HYDRO-SKI Team

Information Members of the HYDRO-SKI Team Publications of the HYDRO-SKI Team

Just klick on the thumbnails to access high resolution images or movies. Movies are available as Quicktime, AVI (Indeo 5.10), DivX Format or MPEG(4). A recommended player for many platforms is VLC. All images and movies, if not stated else, made by Wolfgang Kapferer. If you want to use conent of this page for your purpose please include following disclaimer:

HYDRO-SKI Team
Institute for Astro- and Particlephysics, University of Innsbruck
(http://astro.uibk.ac.at/astroneu/hydroskiteam/index.htm)


Movies and Picture - last update 01/2009
present work
This image shows ram pressure acting on a model galaxies. The three panels show the distribution of gas for three different ambient gas densities (1E-28, 5E-28,1E-27 g/cm3). In the simulation all gas particles have the same mass, whether the gas resides in the galaxy or in the ambient medium. The surrounding gas has a temperature of 1E7 K. Ram-pressure stripping is very efficient in the dense environment in galaxy clusters. In numerical simulations we were able to show, that ram-pressures stripping can enhance the star formation rate of galaxies by a factor of three (Kronberger et al. 2008) and that off-disk star formation can occur (Kapferer et al. 2008). In this image the gas temperature distribution is is shown.
This movie shows the evolution of gas in a high resolution galaxy cluster simulation from z~200 to z=0. The volume shown is a comoving sphere with 10 Mpc h-1 diameter. Only gas below a temperature of 2E6 K is shown, therefore ram-pressure stripping of halo gas and galaxies is easier to see. This movie shows ram pressure acting on a model galaxy. The galaxy moves with 1000 km/s through an ambient (5E-28 g/cm3), hot (1E7 K) medium. Newly fromed stars are coloured white, whereas the red to black colourmap gives the density of the model galaxy gas. The movie shows 1 Gyr of evolution, the simulation box has 850 kpc on the long side.
This movie shows ram pressure acting on two merging model galaxies. The galaxies, while merging, move with 1000 km/s through an ambient, hot medium. Red balls represent gas particles, whereas green balls are a old stellar population and yellow balls are stars formed during the simulation. The movie was created with programme, which applies modern GPU hardware to do the interpolation in space and time. This movie shows the evolution of gas in a high resolution galaxy cluster from z~200 to z=0. The volume shown is a comoving sphere with 10 Mpc h-1 diameter. Hot gas is blue, whereas cold gas is white.
The gas and stellar distribution of matter in the wake of two interacting galaxies moving face-on through an ambient thin (10E−28 g/cm3), hot (5E7 K) medium with 1000 km/s. The gaseous component of the wake is colour coded for the temperature, whereas the newly formed stars in the system are shown in white colour. The inserts (a) and (b) give two irregular structures in the wake of the interacting galaxies in more detail. Note that only the cold gas and newly formed stars are shown in the inserts. The total gas mass in insert (a) is 3.5E6 sunmasses, the total stellar mass present in the volume shown by insert (a) is 3.4E6 sunmasses. The total gas mass located in the region shown in insert (b) is 2.3E6 sunmasses and the total stellar mass present in insert (b) is 5.9E5 sunmasses. This movie shows ram pressure acting on a model galaxy. The galaxy move with 1000 km/s through an ambient, hot medium. Red balls represent gas particles, whereas green balls are a old stellar population and yellow balls are stars formed during the simulation. The movie was created with a software, which applies modern GPU hardware to do the interpolation in space and time. (Vis-Credit belongs to Tobias Riser)
The gas density of interacting galaxies seen face-on. In the lower panel the interaction takes place in an ambient medium with a constant ram pressure acting face-on at the system, whereas in the upper panel no
ambient gas is present.
Distribution of gas in the interacting galaxy pair exposed to a constant ram pressure acting on the galaxies face-on, seen from different sides: left face-on, right edge-on. Between each row 250 Myr of evolution are present. The density of the ambient medium (not shown here) has a constant density of 10−28 g cm−3 and a temperature of 3 keV. The relative velocity of the interacting pair to the ambient medium is 1000 km/s.
Total star-formation rate as a function of time for an isolated model galaxy (red, dashed line) and for a ram-pressure stripped model
galaxy (blue, solid line), which moves edge-on through the ICM. Note that the increase in the star-formation rate is the physically relevant information. The apparent oscillations are due to the numerical implementation of the star-formation model. (Credit belongs to Kronberger Thomas)
The gas distribution overlayed as contours on the smoothed stellar distribution after 500 Myr of ram pressure acting edge-on on a model galaxy. The white arrow in the top right corner of the figure indicates the ICM wind direction. The galaxy rotates counterclockwise. (Credit belongs to Kronberger Thomas)
Left: X-ray weighted metal map of a model galaxy cluster at z = 0, the metallicity in each cell is weighted by the X-ray emission.

Right: synthetic metal map, using a spectrum for each cell. The image has 1.5 Mpc h−1 on the side.
Distribution of the gas (white) and the newly formed stars (turquoise) for a ram-pressure affected galaxy, which moves face-on through the ICM, after 100 Myr (top) and after 500 Myr (bottom), seen
face-on and edge-on. (Credit belongs to Kronberger Thomas)
Three dimensional distribution of the density, temperature and the metallicity of the ICM of a model cluster. Metal-mass profile per radial bin for a model cluster. Solid line: true metal mass within a three dimensional radial bin. Dashed line: metal mass obtained by multiplying the metallicity profile taken from the X-ray weighted metal map with the three dimensional gas mass within the same bin (bin size 80 kpc).
2006/2007
This image gives radial profiles of the X-ray weighted metal maps of a merging model cluster. The quantities are shown at z=0. The upper part of the image gives three metal maps, the left is given for Galactic Winds as enrichemnt process, the right for Ram-Pressure Stripping. In the middle, both (Rps and Winds) are acting as enrichment processes. Comparing these profiles with observations, we find good agreement (e.g. Pratt et al. 2006 astro-ph/0609480). Metal maps and profiles for a model cluster for different enrichment processes This movie shows the evolution of the 3D metallicity distribution for two enrichment processes alone (left cube Ram-Pressure Stripping, right cube Galacitc Winds) and together. The volumes have 2.5 Mpc comoving on a side. The redshift interval is z=7 to z=0. Whereas Ram-Pressure stripping is more effective in the central part of the galaxy cluster, Galactic Winds are more present in the outer parts. 3D Metal Distribution
This movie shows the evolution of the X-ray weigthed metal maps for a model cluster for two different enrichment processes (Rps and Galactic Winds) and for both acting. The maps have 5 Mpc comoving on a side. The redshift interval ranges from z=7 to z=0. The metallicity is given in solar abundance. X-ray weighted metal maps (rps,wind & both) This movie shows the evolution of the 3D metallcity distribution for two enrichment processes alone (left cube Ram-Pressure Stripping, right cube Galacitc Winds) and together. The volumes have 5 Mpc comoving on a side. The redshift interval ranges from z=7 to z=0. Whereas Ram-Pressure Stripping is more effective in the central part of the galaxy cluster, Galactic Winds are more present in the outer parts. 3D Metal Distribution
This movie shows the evolution of the 3D density (left cube) and metallicty (right cube) distribution of the Intra-Cluster Medium over the redshift intervall z=7 to z=0. In the middle the evolution of the X-ray weighted metal map is shown. All cubes and maps have 5 Mpc comoving on a side. The upper cut in the metal map has 0.5 in solar abundance, shown in red color. As enrichment processes Ram-Pressure Strpping and Galactic Winds are acting. X-ray weighted metal map and 3D distribution of metals and density of the ICM This movie shows the rotation of the 3D density (left cube) and metallicty (right cube) distribution of the Intra-Cluster Medium at z=0. In the middle the X-ray weighted metal map is shown. All cubes and maps have 5 Mpc comoving on a side. The upper cut in the metal map has 0.5 in solar abundance, shown in red color. As enrichment processes Ram-Pressure Strpping and Galactic Winds are acting. X-ray weighted metals and 3D properties of the ICM - Rotation
This movie shows the evolution of the 3D temperature (left cube) and density (right cube) distribution of the Intra-Cluster Medium over the redshift intervall z=1 to z=0. In the middle the evolution of the X-ray weighted temperature map is shown. All cubes and maps have 5 Mpc comoving on a side. X-ray weighted Metal Map and 3D distribution of Temperature and Density of the ICM This movie shows the 3D temperature distribution of the Intra-Cluster Medium over the redshift intervall z=1 to z=0. The onion colour map of the voxel texture represents nicely the dyanmics of the ICM. The volume presented in this movie has 3 Mpc comoving on a side.  3D Temperature Distribution of the ICM
The movies show the evolution of the metallcity in the ICM for a merging model cluster. The region has 5 Mpc comoving a side. The X-ray weighted metal map is shown for only Ram-Pressure Stripping acting as enrichment process, for Galactic Winds as enrichment process and for both mechanism acting. The quantities are shown in solar abundance starting at a redshift of z=7. Metals falling along a filament are nicely visible at the northern part. X-ray weighted metal maps for different enrichment processes

 

This plots give the mass-loss of two enrichment processes for a merging model cluster as a function of redshift. As blue line represents Galactic Winds and the red line Ram-Pressure Stripping. In the lower panel a zoom to the redshift intervall z=2 to z=0 is shown. As Ram-pressure Stripping is a process, which is highly dependent on the ICM density and the relative veolocity, the merging events of the cluster are visible in the mass-loss.

 

Mass-loss by galactic winds and ram pressure stripping
Dark Matter evolution from redshift 50 of a merging galaxy cluster. The movies shows a box, which measures 5 Mpc comoving on a side. The simulation was done with GADGET2 (Volker Springel). Dark Matter Evolution This movie shows the DM and Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) distribution in a 5 Mpc a side cube. Whereas the DM was calculated with GADGET2 (Volker Springel), the ICM was done with a PPM (picewise parabolic method) eulerian hydrodyanmics code, developed mainly by the HYDRO-SKI Team. The quantities are shown at redshift 0. Dark Matter - ICM Crossfade
2003 - 2006
X-ray weighted metal map of a merging model cluster as it would be observed with different X-ray telescopes. Due to the lower sensitivity of Chandra in comparison to XMM Newton, the metal map obtained by the ESA instrument would have a higher resolution. The upcoming XEUS mission will give the best resolution. The exposure time would be the same for all three instruments. In the lower right panel the 'true' resolution of the simulation is shown. The images have 5 Mpc on a side. X-ray weighted metal map of a merging model cluster as it would be observed with different X-ray telescopes. 3D-metallcity distribution in a merging model cluster. In the top left insert a iso-denstiy surface is shown as well, this isosurface is highlighted in the larger image. The higher metallcity behind the infalling subcluster is caused by a starburst in the region. The image measures 5 Mpc on a side. 3D-metallcity distribution in a merging model cluster.
X-ray weighted metal map of a merging model cluster with galaxy isodensity lines drawn in. In this image in the lower panel a zoom into the central region is shown. The left row shows the cluster before the merging of a substructure, whereas the right panel gives the cluster after the merging. The metal gap before the merging between the main- and the subcluster is visible. The images measure 5 Mpc on a side. X-ray weighted metal map of a merging model cluster with galaxy isodensity lines drawn in. Evolution of three quantities in our model clusters from z=1 to z=0. X-ray surface brightness (top left panel), X-ray weighted temperature (lower left panel) and X-ray weighted metallicity maps are presented for a non-merging model cluster. The images measure 5 Mpc on a side. Evolution of three quantities in our model clusters from z=1 to z=0.
X-ray weighted metal map of a merging model cluster with galaxy isodensity lines drawn in. The sublucster, approaching from the left bottom side, shows higher metallcity behind the direction of motion, then in front of. Metal maps in combination with galaxy densities can help to distinguish whether a cluster is in the pre- or post merger phase. The image measures 5 Mpc on a side. X-ray weighted metal map of a merging model cluster with galaxy isodensity lines drawn in Evolution of three quantities in our model clusters from z=1 to z=0. X-ray surface brightness (upper left panel), X-ray weighted temperature (lower left panel) and X-ray weighted metallicity maps are presented for a merging model cluster. The images measure 5 Mpc on a side.

Evolution of the Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster since z=1. The red/green/white colormap indicates the temperature of the ICM whereas the yellow isosurfaces shows the ejected material from galaxies due to galactic winds and starbursts.

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Evolution of the Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster since z=1

Flight thourgh a model galaxy. The simulation was done with GADGET2 (Volker Springel). Gas is shown in blue and stellar matter as yellow dots.

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Flight thourgh a model galaxy. The simulation was done with GADGET2 (Volker Springel).

Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster. The red/green/white colormap indicates the temperature of the ICM whereas the pink isosurfaces shows the ejected material from galaxies due to galactic winds and starbursts.

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Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster

Zoom into the Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster. The red/green/white colormap indicates the temperature of the ICM whereas the pink isosurfaces shows the ejected material from galaxies due to galactic winds and starbursts.

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Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster. The red/green/white colormap indicates the temperature of the ICM whereas the yellow isosurfaces shows the ejected material from galaxies due to galactic winds and starbursts..

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Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster

Temperature and metal distribution in a model galaxy cluster. The red/green/white colormap indicates the temperature of the ICM whereas the yellow isosurfaces shows the ejected material from galaxies due to galactic winds and starbursts.

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A virtual fly through a model galaxy cluster. The red color indicates the temperature of the ICM whereas the green color shows the sptripped material from galaxies due to ram pressure stripping.

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Stripped Matter and Temperature Distribution

A virtual fly through a model galaxy cluster. The red color indicates the temperature of the ICM whereas the points indicate the positions of the cluster galaxies

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Galaxies and Temperature Distribution

Evolution of the temperature distribution in a model cluster is shown. The points indicate the position of the galaxies.

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Galaxies and Temperature Distribution

Evolution of the dark matter distribution in a model cluster is shown. A integration along the line of sight is shown. The image shows a 5 Mpc^2 area.

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Dark Matter Potential

Ejected matter due to galactic winds (right) and ram pressure stripping (left) in a 20 Mpc^3 cube ist shown. The underlying model galaxy cluster is the same for both pictures. The metallicity of the matter is given in solar abundance. A projection view along the line of sight is shown.

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Galactic Winds versus Ram Pressure Stripping

Ejected matter due to galactic winds (right) and ram pressure stripping (left) in a 5 Mpc^3 cube ist shown. The underlying model galaxy cluster is the same for both pictures. The metallicity of the matter is given in solar abundance

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Galactic Winds versus Ram Pressure Stripping
Temperature distribution

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Temperature Distribution

Stripped matter from galaxies
(ram pressure stripping) and 3D temperature distribution

(Cube: 10 Mpc on the side)

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Stripped Matter from Galaxies and 3D Temperature Distribution

Stripped matter from galaxies
(ram pressure stripping)

(Cube: 10 Mpc on the side)

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Stripped Matter from Galaxies

Stripped matter from galaxies
(ram pressure stripping)

(Cube: 10 Mpc on the side)

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Stripped Matter from Galaxies
Temperature distribution

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Temperature Distribution
Temperature distribution

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Temperature Distribution
Temperature distribution
(Cube:10 Mpc on the side)

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Temperature Distribution
Temperature distribution

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Temperature distribution
(Cube: 2.5 Mpc on the side)

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Temperature distribution

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Temperature Distribution

Density distribution
(Cube: 5 Mpc on the side)

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Density Distribution

Density distribution
(Cube: 20 Mpc on the side)

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Density Distribution

Density distribution
(Cube: 5 Mpc on the side)

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3D Density Isosurface

Temperature distribution
(Cube: 20/10/5/2.5 Mpc on the side)

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Temperature Distribution

Temperature distribution
(Cube: 5 Mpc on the side)

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Temperature distribution along a slice

Galaxies in our simulation
((Cube: 5 Mpc on the side)

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Galaxies in our Coma Cluster Simulation
Filaments in the Coma cluster
Observation vs. Simulationen
Simulation vs. Observation (Coma Cluster)

Stripped matter from galaxies
(ram pressure stripping)

(Cube: 10 Mpc on the side)

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Ram Pressure Stripping

Stripped matter from galaxies
(ram pressure stripping)

Higher Resolution
(Cube: 2.5 Mpc on the side)

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Ram Pressure Stripping

Artificial X-ray map

(Cube: 5 Mpc on the side)

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Artificial X-ray Map

X-ray weighted metal map

(Cube: 5 Mpc on the side)

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Metal Maps

Time evolution of the X-ray emission profile
(Plots by Magdalena Mair)

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